As the construction progressed, the South- East Bastion and nearby walls by the Hooghly River was added by Sir Charles Eyre. The British started developing Calcutta as a presidency unit and sought permission from the Governor to use their own army to protect their factories, which they got. Presidency College - 1870 Designed by Robert F. Chisholm in pure Italian style derived from Renaissance Classicism Lectures and Seminars are held in the hall Mayo College of Mant at Ajmer was built in Indo - saracenic. Victory in the June 1757 battle of Plassey opened up a vast majority of Northern India to the British and contributed to the emergence of Calcutta as the Imperial Capital. If we project this map into modern Kolkata the fort would be in the area of Dalhousie Square between Fairlie Place in the north and BTM Sarani in the south. It was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, and in 1612 the company joined other already established European trading companies in Bengal. The Fort was built by the East India Company in 1696. On the river side the rear entrance led to the Ghats or landing places. Bengal, 1710, map published by Pieter van der Aa. Meanwhile, as Calcutta’s population grew larger, social problems also became more insistent, as did demands for home rule for India. Calcutta in 1756 was a segregated city. Britishers built the three presidency cities in India during their rule and these are Bombay presidency (established in 1687), Calcutta presidency (established in 1690) and Madras Presidency (established in 1640). Fort William, in ruins, had to be mostly re-built and this saw the introduction of military-style architecture to public buildings in urban settings. One of Kolkata's most enduring Raj-era edifices, it extends over an area of 70.9 hectares. Lord Curzon, viceroy of India, partitioned Bengal in 1905, making Dacca (now Dhaka, Bangl.) The municipal corporation was established in 1841. It was built during the early years of the Bengal Presidency of British India. For most of the 17th century the commercial interests of the East India Company (EIC) was managed from Fort St. George in Madras (Chennai). In 1608, the English East India Company established a settlement at Surat (now in the state of Gujarat), and this became the company's first headquarters town. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The north face ran inland for 310 feet and south face 500 feet. The most serious communal riots of all took place in 1946, when the partition of British India became imminent and tensions between Muslims and Hindus reached their height. The original Fort William, now referred to as “Old Fort William” was a totally different structure north of the current fort. August 1, 2020 / Spotlight. 1699 East India Company started developing Calcutta as a Presidency city. The shaded habitations in this map are marked as English Houses. Fort William in the modern city of Kolkata is the headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Indian Army. - DRPWXK from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Find premium, high-resolution stock photography at Getty Images. Calcutta became the intellectual centre of the subcontinent. The Bengal Army led by Nawab Sirajud Daula attacked and laid siege to the fort and the British surrendered on June 20, 1756. This plan is that of the Old Fort William as it existed in 1756. Download this stock image: Alipore Jail in Calcutta, India, built by the British to hold politcal prisoners during the time of British Rule over India. A supreme court administering English law began to exercise original jurisdiction over the city as far as the Maratha Ditch (now Acharya Prafulla Chandra and Jagadish Chandra Bose roads). Fort William is a fort built in Calcutta on the Eastern banks of the River Hooghly, the major distributary of the River Ganges, during the early years of the Bengal Presidency of British India. The map is oriented east (north is to the left). The nawab was defeated shortly afterward at Plassey (June 1757), after which British rule in Bengal was assured. In 1814 the Lottery Committee was constituted to finance public improvement by means of lotteries, and between 1814 and 1836 it took some effective measures to improve conditions. The cornerstone was laid in 1839; the building was completed in 1847. Old Fort William was functional between 1700 and 1756. Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta in English, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly.The city was a colonial city developed by the British East India Company and then by the British Empire. 1/2 Roupie an 19 BRITISH INDIA – EAST INDIA COMPANY - BENGAL PRESIDENCY Calcutta n.d. (22mm, 5,79g, 12h) TTB Numismatique, monnaies anciennes, monnaies de collection, billets MA-SHOPS Garantie monnaies, billets et livres. 1727 As per the order of King George I, a civil court was set up. It became capital of British in 1771 after the defeat of Siraj-uddullah. Historical Atlas, Bangladesh, India since 1947, Pakistan, South Asia Pages see also EIC India for the history of India under the E.I.C., 1759-1858, British India for the history of British India 1858-1947 In 1699 the EIC declared Bengal as a separate Presidency and named the fort to be built in Calcutta as Fort William after the then British monarch William III. It was named after King William III of England in 1700. In Bengal, the British inherited from the Mughals the biggest revenue earnings in the Indian subcontinent. There were few good roads. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He died on June 11, 1962 in Calcutta [now Kolkata], West Bengal, India. In 1690 the Chief Agent of Bengal, Job Charnock built an unauthorized settlement in Sutanuti and called it Calcutta after the nearby village of Kalikata. British mercantile, banking, and insurance interests flourished. The outline of the fort is an irregular rectangle. There is a brass line on the steps of the Kolkata GPO marking the southeast bastion of the fort. The east face fronting the river extended 700 feet. In 1699 the EIC declared Bengal as a separate Presidency and named the fort to be built in Calcutta as Fort William after the then British monarch William III. Calcutta was the capital of British India, and under colonial rule, it burgeoned into a thriving metropolis. In 1706 the population of Calcutta was roughly between 10,000 and 12,000. The only bridge linking Kolkata to its twin city Howrah over River Hooghly was built … It is the seat of the Diocese of Calcutta. Communal riots occurred in 1926, and, when the nationalist leader Mohandas Gandhi called for noncompliance with unjust laws, riots occurred in 1930. Inside the walls was the imposing Factory or Government house, the armory, storage facilities and the clerks’ quarters. PLAN FOR THE INTELLIGENCE OF THE MILITARY OPERATIONS AT CALCUTTA WHEN ATTACKED AND TAKEN BY SEERAJAH DOWLET 1756. [1] It is said to be the largest cathedral in Kolkata and the first Episcopal Church in Asia. The White (British) Town was built on ground that had been raised and drained. Mughal Bengal accounted for 12% of the world's GDP and was a major exporter of silk, cotton, saltpeter, and agricultural produce. A supreme court administering English law … Calcutta became Presidency Town of East India Company in 1699 but the Bengal Presidency came into existence in 1765 after a treaty was signed between East India Company, Mughal Emperor and the Nawab of Audh. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. KM : 56 Qualité de la monnaie : SPL Métal : Cuivre Pays : INDIA-BRITISH Valeur faciale : Pice Atelier : Calcutta Type de produit : Monnaie Année : Year 37 (1829) 6.63 gr However, manipulatively, they began constructing the fortress with all available manpower. The Indian merchants lived in the Black Town north of the fort whereas the Indians of lower socioeconomic class lived towards the south. Gobindapore was cleared of its forests, and the new Fort William was built on its present site, overlooking the Hugli at Calcutta, where it became the symbol of British … The Calcutta Scottish was inspected by the Prince of Wales in 1928. 1715 British people completed building the Old Fort. Kolkata was the capital of the British Indian empire until 1911 when the capital was relocated to Delhi. In 1773 Bombay (now Mumbai) and Madras (now Chennai) became subordinate to the government at Fort William. The Indian sector of Calcutta also became a busy hub of commerce and was thronged with people from throughout India and many other parts of Asia. Kolkata - Kolkata - Capital of British India: Calcutta did not become the capital of British India until 1772, when the first governor-general, Warren Hastings, transferred all important offices to the city from Murshidabad, the provincial Mughal capital. The site of the fort is marked with the letter a. Murshidabad was capital of Bengal. Alipore Jail in Calcutta, India, built by the British to hold politcal prisoners during the time of British Rule over India.. Subscription-free stock image available for license. Named after William III, the fort sits on the banks of the Hooghly River and was at the centre of the Battle of Plassey fought between the British and the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daulah. Completely separated from Bengal Presidency were Straits Settlements in 1867, Aden, Burma in 1937. However, following the decline of the Mughal Empire in 1707 and after the East India Co… It was also the first cathedral built in the overseas territory of the British Empire. In 1696 when Charles Eyre was Chief Agent of the EIC in Calcutta, the authorization for transfer of the Jagirdari (Tenancy) of the villages of Sutanuti, Kalikata and Govindapur was obtained from Prince Azim-us-Shan, the Governor of Bengal and grandson of Emperor Aurangzeb. The original fort was built by British East India Company and the work started under the supervision of John Goldsborough in 1696. One of Kolkata ’s finest historical monuments, Fort William was built during the time of the Bengal Presidency and is an architectural marvel. The turn of the 20th century marked the beginning of a troublesome period for Calcutta. This area around Fort William-Calcutta-became the seat of the British province known as the Bengal Presidency. It was Hedges’ idea to build a fortified port close to the mouth of the Hooghly River to protect British interests from other European powers as well as from subordinates of the Nawab of Bengal. Calcutta was recaptured in January 1757 by Robert Clive, one of the founders of British power in India, and by the British admiral Charles Watson. This section of the town was called the European Town but colloquially as the White Town. 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