CsQCA was introduced in 1987 when there was no similar method in existence. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 16(2), 165-166. aspects of an intervention and the wider context) to an outcome of interest. Global knowledge management research: A bibliometric analysis. low = 0 and high = 1). Thus, it can be concluded that the methodology is relevant in the scientific field, given the academic prestige of the journals publishing these contributions. JIK articles explore knowledge-related changes that introduce or encourage innovation to promote best practices within society. Thus, if two expressions that are identical in all but one condition lead to the same result then that condition is irrelevant, since its presence or absence in no way affects the result. Our writers will offer prices for your order. The Journal of Innovation and Knowledge (JIK) focuses on how we gain knowledge through innovation and how knowledge encourages new forms of innovation. Long-Run Development and the Legacy of Colonialism in Spanish America. Institutional and Cultural Foundations of American Indian Economic Development. 3). In 2003, the first article using the fsQCA variant was published. In statistics, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is a data analysis technique for determining which logical conclusions a data set supports. Regarding the quality and impact of the journals in which the articles were published, of the 469 articles analyzed, approximately 80% were published in journals indexed in the Social Science Citation Index of the Journal Citation Index (JCR). Comparative politics accounts for the largest number, followed by business and economics, and sociology. Academy of Management Journal, 15 (1972), pp. causation). Every row in the table represents a configuration of the conditions that produce a particular outcome. • QCA is a comparative method that is mainly used in the social sciences for the assessment of cause-effect relations (i.e. Qualitative Comparative Analysis And Case Study Methods, natural gas technician cover letter, consent form research proposal, personal essay slp graudate school format. causation). Table 1 presents the total number of citations and articles published in each of the fields of research collected by Compasss. ANALYSIS (QCA) Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a methodology that enables the analysis of multiple cases in complex situations. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) as an approach. Frequency thresholds can be set to determine the conditions that are part of the research and those that are not, according to their relevance, as we discuss later. L. Bornmann, A. Thor, W. Marx, H. Schier. 447-465. As this is a logical (deterministic) and not a statistical (probabilistic) technique, with "crisp-set" QCA (csQCA), the original application of QCA, variables can only have two values, which is problematic as the researcher has to determine the values of each variable. The platform provides a space for dialog and fruitful confrontations between qualitative (case-oriented) and quantitative (based on variables) methods, and a stage for the integration of these methods to progress in the development and application of approaches, methods, and original techniques, all aimed at developing a comprehensive approach to systematic comparative analysis of sets. It starts out by familiarising you with the basic concepts of the underlying methodological perspective, including formal logic, Boolean algebra, causal complexity, and calibration. Number of articles published with QCA per year. Knowledge-related changes that introduce innovations and best practices in society. Consulte los artículos y contenidos publicados en éste medio, además de los e-sumarios de las revistas científicas en el mismo momento de publicación, Esté informado en todo momento gracias a las alertas y novedades, Acceda a promociones exclusivas en suscripciones, lanzamientos y cursos acreditados. Knowledge and innovation derived from data. [4] This technique allows the identification of multiple causal pathways and interaction effects that may not be detectable via statistical analysis that typically requires its data set to conform to one model. Note in particular that since 2010 more than 300 (of the 469) articles use QCA in both its csQCA and fsQCA versions. Read stories and highlights from Coursera learners who completed Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and wanted to share their experience. [5], Statistical methodologists have argued that QCA's strong assumptions render its findings both fragile and prone to type I error. Another opportunity for future research would be to analyze the use of different methods in the field of philosophy of science; this would contribute by analyzing the degree of adequacy of each method based on a solid, rational logic which goes beyond periodic trends occurring within the scientific community. SummarizeBot is qualitative data analysis software, and includes features such as annotations, media analytics, Multi-Language, qualitative comparative analysis, quantitative content analysis, sentiment analysis, statistical analysis, and text analytics. Very engaging. Quality & Quantity, 47 (2013), pp. A bibliometric analysis of 30 years of research and theory on corporate social responsibility and corporate social performance. The editors welcome suggestions for special issue topics. For example, it could be applied to regression methods and fsQCA. Background: Clinical placement is often considered an essential aspect of nursing education and an invaluable way to prepare students for the reality of nursing. One (or the only) characteristic of csQCA which fsQCA does not exceed is that it detects contradictions, which can be considered a separate line of research. Invernizzi et al. This article has conducted a bibliometric analysis of the QCA method in its three versions: csQCA, fsQCA, and mvQCA. 2018), Entrepreneurship (e.g. Great videos. This method, although less consistent than previous methods, advanced application of these theories to real circumstances, and laid the foundation for the development of QCA (Vassinen, 2012). By counting the number of observations that exist for each of the 60 unique combination of variables, QCA can determine which descriptive inferences or implications are empirically supported by a data set. This paper contributes to the dialogue on methodological options by exploring the utility of applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis using fuzzy sets (fsQCA) for understanding complex causality and the conditions that support resilience in humanitarian contexts. Thus, a configuration with high values for all its conditions in a representation of a table with 22 rows will occupy a point near the upper-right corner of a chart with four quadrants. Thus, this changes the result. El curso pretende ser una primera aproximación a esta metodología. Table 1. This reduced set of inferences is termed the "prime implicates" by QCA adherents. It will also help you determine if the … Thus, fsQCA is overtaking its predecessors (csQCA and mvQCA) due to the advantages it offers for configuring causal conditions based on the degree of membership rather than on categorical memberships as in csQCA and mvQCA. Based on this input, the software automatically generates three types of solutions: complex (called conservative solution by Schneider & Wagemann, 2012 , p. 162), intermediate, and parsimonious. Conditions of Democracy in Interwar Europe: A Boolean Test of Major Hypotheses. Community Managed Forests and Forest Protected Areas: An Assessment of Their Conservation Effectiveness Across the Tropics, The Critical Shapes of Body Image: The Role of Culture and Family in the Production of Eating Disorders, Hodson, Randy, Vincent J. Roscigno, and Steven H. Lopez, Explaining Government Preferences for Institutional Change in EU Foreign and Security Policy. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a means of analysing the causal contribution of different conditions (e.g. Furthermore, the method of the agreement is applicable only to phenomena with positive results. In the case of mvQCA, the data are insignificant and only a little more than half of the articles published were in SCI journals. These data reveal greater interest in the fsQCA method from researchers in these fields of knowledge. However, if the researcher wants to claim that condition X is a probabilistic 'predictor' of condition Y, in another similar set of cases, then the proportion of counterexample cases to an inference to the proportion of cases having that same combination of conditions can be set at a threshold value of for example 80% or higher. Mobilization at the Margins: Resources, Benefactors, and the Viability of Homeless Social Movement Organizations. However, the PRI method, as the author indicates, might not rule out all irrelevant conditions. Knowledge and innovation in organizations and their behaviors. 2). However, the irrelevant conditions in fsQCA for the calculation of consistency and coverage can take values different from 0 but less than 0.5. The Programmatic Emergence of the Social Security State. The analysis begins with listing and counting all the combinations of variables observed in the data set, followed by applying the rules of logical inference to determine which descriptive inferences or implications the data supports. In statistics, qualitative comparative analysis is a data analysis technique for determining which logical conclusions a data set supports. The concept of bibliometrics, or bibliometric analysis, was introduced by Alan Pritchard in 1969. Following Ragin (2008), fsQCA assigns membership values to conditions on a scale from 0.0 (non-membership) to 1.0 (full membership), with 0.5 as the cross-over point or point of maximum ambiguity. 15. It integrates qualitative and quantitative analysis of cases to understand how combinations of causes and conditions interact to affect outcomes of interest. At the same time, QCA is capable of pinpointing decisive cross-case patterns, the usual domain of quantitative analysis. Knowledge patterns in relation to innovation. Please read the points below before you start the course. Reflections on casing and case-oriented research. Fuzzy set QCA aims to handle variables, such as GDP per capita, where the number of categories, decimal values of monetary units, becomes too large to use mvQCA, or in cases were uncertainty or ambiguity or measurement error in the classification of a case needs to be acknowledged.[10]. Posts about Qualitative comparative analysis written by etdlist. Find helpful learner reviews, feedback, and ratings for Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) from Erasmus University Rotterdam. 4. Cross-cultural case studies in knowledge and innovation. It can be used in situations The field has grown exponentially since the advent of the Internet which facilitated communication among researchers around the world, and has enabled faster access to the contributions in a given area. Identifying x-consumers using causal recipes: “Whales” and “jumbo shrimps” casino gamblers. Finally, we analyze the journals which publish the most papers using this research method. It prioritizes the development and application of methods based on comparative configuration and theory sets (csQCA, mvQCA, fsQCA, and other related methods and techniques). This article provides a detailed description of the characteristics of published research that employs QCA. The comparative advantages of fsQCA and regression analysis for moderately large-N analyses. Where's the Glue? In real-life complex societal processes, QCA enables the identification of multiple sets of conditions that are consistently associated with a particular output value in order to explore for causal predictors. El estudio está organizado en dos partes: La primera parte consiste en un análisis general del uso del Análisis Cualitativo Comparado (QCA); en la segunda parte se presenta un análisis bibliométrico del uso del QCA que examina las especificidades de las publicaciones científicas que aplican esta metodología. QCA is a method that bridges qualitative and quantitative analysis: Most aspects of QCA require familiarity with cases, which in turn demands in-depth knowledge. 9. It is particularly striking that the articles based on fsQCA were mostly published between 2010 and 2015 while work exploiting the csQCA methodology started in 1991 and most was published in the 1990s. An overview of qualitative comparative analysis: A bibliometric analysis, Una visión general del analísi comparativo y cualitativo: Un análisis bibliométrico. This allocation is known as set calibration. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, Journal of Innovation and Knowledge 2 (2017) 45-7, Journal of Innovation and Knowledge 2 (2017) 10-4, Copyright © 2021 Elsevier, except certain content provided by third parties. Bibliometric analysis can also be focused on a particular journal to identify which subjects are most frequent, which authors publish most frequently in a certain journal, and which are the most cited articles (e.g., Merigó, Mas-Tur, Roig-Tierno, & Ribeiro-Soriano, 2015). (1995), Self-organizing Processes in Top Management Teams: A Boolean Comparative Approach. The study is structured as follows: ‘Qualitative Comparative Analysis’ section reviews the evolution of QCA; ‘Bibliometrics’ section provides a bibliometric analysis of the use, application, main authors, and impact of QCA; ‘Conclusions’ section discusses the main conclusions and suggests future directions of research on QCA. Political Mediation and the Impact of the Pension Movement on U.S. Old-Age Policy, De Facto Independence after Delegation: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis. In other words, to calculate the consistency or coverage in the formula for the csQCA variant, the inclusion of irrelevant conditions for consistency or coverage becomes less important since these conditions do not change the result (which is always 0). [7] Bear F. Braumoeller further explores the vulnerability of the QCA family of techniques to both type I error and multiple inference. Fantastic course. Information systems in knowledge and innovation. That is, a condition might be presented as a necessary cause in a configuration by emerging in the same cases in which the true necessary cause would appear had it been considered in the study. The drawback to these methods is the impossibility of generalizing the results to other similar cases. [3] The method is used in social science and is based on the binary logic of Boolean algebra, and attempts to ensure that all possible combinations of variables that can be made across the cases under investigation are considered. Applications in government and administration, Applications in urban and regional studies. Researchers must ensure that these conditions are relevant to the study of an outcome based on the theory and the studies conducted so far in the field of expertise. One condition will suffice if a particular outcome emerges whenever the condition is present (Ragin, 2008; Schneider & Wagemann, 2012). Specifically, the study aims to identify quantitative differences among its variants, to provide a global perspective of the state, scope, and impact of published research. Among the three variants of QCA, fuzzy-set QCA (fsQCA) has attracted the most attention in terms of amount of research. Fig. Knowledge and innovation transfer. A system of logic, ratiocinative and inductive. The project began in 2003, and its management was reorganized in 2008 and 2012 to accommodate the growing needs in the field. Kask and Linton (2013) Business mating: when startups get it right. Regarding publication years, one of the articles was published in the 1980s, 44 in the 1990s (all utilizing csQCA), and the remaining 425 articles were published after 2000 (Fig. It seems that this methodology has been accepted by the scientific field, evidenced by the number of published articles using this methodology in indexed and high impact journals. Age for Leisure? Coverage refers to the number of cases for which a configuration is valid. Children's First Names: An Empirical Study of Social Taste. Therefore, it should be considered less relevant than other configurations with higher consistency. The application of bibliometrics to research evaluation in the humanities and social sciences: An exploratory study using normalized Google Scholar data for the publications of a research institute. Definición en Inglés: Qualitative Comparative Analysis. According to Schwellnus (2013), the proportional reduction in consistency (PRI) is the best option for fsQCA since it was developed by Ragin and has been applied to fsQCA. [11] Today the method has been used in: J. Goldthorpe, "Current issues in comparative macrosociology" in. These are geared toward establishing and quantifying causal relationships between the variables, and underestimate the importance of analyzing the complex interactions produced in social science which allow for several alternatives to achieve the same end. 5. Alongside organization of this international resource platform, the main group in COMPASSS arranges seminars, manages a data file, publishes research, and participates in the development of software for the application of this methodology. This is common in areas with a high degrees of interdisciplinarity. The objective is to spread within the academic community, an analytical method that is able to complement and extend research programs. By maximizing the number of comparisons that can be made across the cases under investigation, causal inferences are according to Ragin possible. Porter-Bolland, Luciana, Edward A. Ellis, Manuel R. Guariguata, Isabel Ruiz-Mallén, Simoneta Negrete-Yankelevich, and Victoria Reyes-García. Institutions and Inflows of Foreign Direct Investment: A Fuzzy-Set Analysis. QCA can be performed probabilistically or deterministically with observations of categorical variables. Building Better Causal Theories: A Fuzzy Set Approach to Typologies in Organizational Research. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Qualitative comparative analysis as a method for project studies: The case of energy infrastructure", qualitative comparative analysis - History Of qualitative comparative analysis | Encyclopedia.com: Dictionary Of Sociology, "Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and Related Systematic Comparative Methods: Recent Advances and Remaining Challenges for Social Science Research", "Qualitative Comparative Analysis: How Inductive Use and Measurement Error Lead to Problematic Inference", "Fuzzy Sets on Shaky Ground: Parameter Sensitivity and Confirmation Bias in fsQCA", "Guarding Against False Positives in Qualitative Comparative Analysis", "QCAfalsePositive: Tests for Type I Error in Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA)", "An overview of qualitative comparative analysis: A bibliometric analysis", http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08276331.2013.876765#.U0UIwvl_t8E, "That Makes Sense to Me: Openness to Change and Sensemaking in Idea Screening", "A mathematical approach to the boolean minimization problem", COMPASSS (COMPArative Methods for Systematic cross-caSe analySis), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Qualitative_comparative_analysis&oldid=994061405, Articles lacking in-text citations from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Business (e.g. The technique originally focused on small samples but further development has allowed its application to broader contexts. If the threshold is set at 0.75, the condition could be validated and would suffice to cause the result even in the absence of a supporting reasoning. For example, by setting a threshold of 0.8, a condition with 0.75 consistency will be dismissed, and the other conditions will be understood as sufficient to cause the result. 191-198. Social science is aimed at helping us understand the reality surrounding us so that we can improve it. [4] Ragin, and other scholars such as Lasse Cronqvist, have tried to deal with these issues by developing new tools that extend QCA, such as multi-value QCA (mvQCA) and fuzzy set QCA (fsQCA). JIK welcomes papers on innovations that improve the quality of knowledge or that can be used to develop knowledge. 1 shows the huge differences in the number of articles using QCA in different areas of study. 11. The Sage handbook of case-based methods, (2009), pp. However, there may be other conditions which lead to the same result, in other words, there may be multiple sufficient causes (Ragin, 2008). countries) available is inherently limited. Journal of Business Research, 68 (2015), pp. The key process in the calculation of configurations is Boolean minimization. [6] Chris Krogslund, Donghyun Danny Choi, and Mathias Poertner further demonstrate that QCA results are highly sensitive to minor parametric and model-susceptibility changes and are vulnerable to type I error. In csQCA, the conditions with low levels of consistency or coverage with respect to the sufficient conditions are eliminated given that their value is always 0 (Ragin, 1987, 2000; Woodside & Zhang, 2012). According to the method of difference, if there is a circumstance when the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and another when it does not occur, this difference is the cause or effect or a necessary part of the phenomenon. In sum, JIK is an interdisciplinary journal devoted to advancing theoretical and practical innovations and knowledge in a range of fields, including Economics, Business and Management, Engineering, Science, and Education. To achieve this, we provide a bibliometric analysis of the research contributions to date. Based on this analysis, the present article provides information on the following aspects: (1) the number of studies per research field; (2) the number of articles published per year; (3) the number of articles that use each variant of QCA and the number of articles of each QCA variant published in JCR journals; (4) citations per field and average number of citations; most cited QCA articles; (5) the journals publishing the highest number of articles using QCA. More recently, qualitative methods have been used to measure resilience. Rubinson suggests three options: modifying the data, codifying the column of results, or modifying the parameters of the analysis. CsQCA is the most method in these articles. It can help explain why change happens in some cases but not others. The Origin of Corporate Social Responsibility: Global Forces or National Legacies? Number of articles using the different QCA methodologies. Unlike consistency, the fact that a configuration coverage is low does not imply less relevance. CsQCA uses categorical conditions based on a dichotomy, assigning the values 1 – full membership, or 0 – full non-membership, to each condition. A set-theoretic approach to organizational configurations. Note: Multi-value QCA is simply QCA applied to observations having categorical variables with more than two values. Political Analysis, 23 (2015), pp. The Outcomes of Homeless Mobilization: The Influence of Organization, Disruption, Political Mediation, and Framing. Simon Hug argues that deterministic hypotheses and error-free measures are exceedingly rare in social science and uses Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate the fragility of QCA results if either assumption is violated. Political Research Quarterly, (2013), pp. We found 4691 articles on the Compasss website which includes the QCA methodology in its three variants (fsQCA, csQCA, and mvQCA). 6. Braumoeller (2015) warns against the lack of a goodness-of-fit test specific to the characteristics of fsQCA logic. • QCA is relevant for researchers who normally work with qualitative methods and are looking for a more systematic way of comparing and assessing cases. We conduct a general analysis of the use of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), and a bibliometric study of the use of QCA to analyze the specificities of the research publications that apply this methodology. This study uses the technique to explore the relevance of an analytic method to identify cause and effect relationships: QCA. The limited popularity of mvQCA is based on its introduction as a modest alternative to csQCA which improved some aspects related to rigidity but did not resolve them completely.

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